¿Qué es una mascarilla respiratoria N95?

Las mascarillas de respiración desechables han recibido mayor atención en los últimos tiempos con la propagación del virus de la gripe COVID-19, aunque durante mucho tiempo se han utilizado para otros fines, incluida la seguridad ocupacional. N95 se refiere a una clasificación del Instituto Nacional de Seguridad y Salud Ocupacional (NIOSH) que se asigna a las máscaras que cumplen con un estándar mínimo específico para la transmisión de partículas. La mascarilla de respiración N95 está diseñada para filtrar hasta el 95% de las partículas en el aire de 0.3 micrones o más grandes que de otra manera podrían entrar directamente en la nariz y la boca del usuario. Estas máscaras también pueden ser usadas por personas que padecen una enfermedad contagiosa para evitar que las partículas salgan de la nariz y la boca del usuario y pongan en riesgo a otras personas. Si bien estas máscaras no protegen contra la transmisión de partículas con una precisión del 100%, pueden ser eficaces para prevenir la propagación de infecciones.

Las máscaras N95 se pueden comprar con o sin válvula para facilitar la respiración. La protección óptima se logra cuando la máscara del respirador se ajusta cómodamente a la cara, cubriendo la nariz y la boca sin dejar espacios abiertos a lo largo del borde. Las mascarillas respiratorias deben ajustarse correctamente al usuario y no deben quedar obstruidas por el vello facial o las joyas. Una mascarilla de respiración mal ajustada tiene mayor potencial para permitir que las partículas de aire entren a través de los huecos a lo largo de los bordes de la mascarilla, proporcionando niveles más bajos de protección contra la inhalación o propagación de partículas que una bien ajustada.

Las mascarillas respiratorias se utilizan ampliamente para la seguridad ocupacional y son particularmente comunes en instalaciones industriales y de atención médica. Las máscaras utilizadas en el lugar de trabajo deben estar aprobadas por NIOSH, lo que significa que cumplen con los estándares mínimos establecidos por el Instituto Nacional de Seguridad y Salud Ocupacional.

Se debe tener en cuenta el propósito previsto al comprar mascarillas de respiración. Los diferentes tipos están diseñados para propósitos específicos y ofrecen distintos niveles de protección. Otra consideración es si la mascarilla contiene látex, un alérgeno para algunas personas. Se encuentran disponibles máscaras de respiración N95 sin látex, y estarán marcadas como tales.

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